A body of rules and statutes that defines conduct prohibited by the government because it the threatens and harms public safety and welfare and that establishes punishment to be imposed for the commission of sug acts. The term criminal law generally refers to substantive criminal laws. Substantive criminal laws define crimes and may establish punishments. In contrast, criminal procedure describe the process through which the criminal laws are enforced. For example, the law prohibiting murder is a substantive criminal law. The manner in which government an forces this substantive law through the gathering of evidence and prosecution is generally considered a procedural matter.
One of the two major legal systems of the modern Western world (the other is common law). Derived from Roman law, it is followed in the countries of continental Europe, their former colonies, Isle of Man, Latin America, Scotland, state of Louisiana in the US federation, and in Canada's Quebec province. In this system, a highly structured and rigid code of rules is observed to the letter, and an expert judge decides cases without the help of jury and without any reference to precedent. Under this system, every defendant who enters a criminal trial is presumed guilty until proven innocent, whereas under common law (practiced in most English-speaking countries) he or she is presumed innocent until proven guilty. Private law which (in contrast to administrative law, criminal law, ecclesiastical law, and military law) deals with relationships among individuals.
Inheritance is the practice of passing on property, titles, debts, right, and obligations upon the death of an individual. The rules of inheritance differ between societies and have changed over time. In law, an heir is a person who is entitled to receive a share of the deceased's (the person who died) property, subject to the rules of inheritance in the jurisdiction of which the deceased was a citizen or where the deceased (decedent) died or owned property at the time of death. A person does not become an heir before the death of the deceased, since the exact identity of the persons entitled to inherit is determined only then. Members of ruling noble or royal houses expected to become heirs are called heirs apparent if first in line and incapable of being displaced from inheriting by another claim; otherwise, they are heirs presumptive. There is a further concept of joint inheritance, pending renunciation by all but one, which is called coparcenary. In modern law, the terms inheritance and heir refer exclusively to succession to property by descent from a deceased dying intestate. Takers in property succeeded to under a will are termed generally beneficiaries, and specifically devises for real property, bequests for personal property, or legatees.
Employment ( Labour)
Employment is a relationship between two parties, usually based on a contract where work is paid for, where one party, which may be a corporation, for profit, non for profit organization, co operative, or other entity is the employer and the other is the employee. Employees work in return for payment, which may be in the form of an hourly wage, by piecework or an annual salary, depending on the type of work an employee does or which sector she or he is working in. Employees in some fields or sectors may receive gratuities, bonus payment or stock option. In some types of employment, employees may receive benefits in addition to payment. Benefits can include health insurance, housing, disability insurance, or use of a gym. Employment is typically governed by employment laws or regulations or legal contracts.
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